The oil refining complex has a very complex structure, components and methodology. In particular, the equipment necessary for the processing of oil and oil products at different stages and to a certain degree of purification has its own classification.
Equipment for petrochemical and oil refining industries
The equipment of petrochemical and oil refining industries, depending on the pressure required for the operation of the devices, is divided into 3 main groups:
• operating under pressure less than 16MPa;
• working under pressure more than 16MPa;
• equipment operating in a vacuum.
For each group of objects, special rules are provided:
• design, production and operation of devices;
• fire and explosion safety;
• transportation and use in production of organic and inorganic chemicals and reagents.
Compliance with these instructions is mandatory, since these productions are classified as especially dangerous. All employees are instructed in all types of safety precautions and certified for the right to work with specific equipment.
Equipment for oil refineries
The equipment used at modern oil refineries consists of devices and mechanisms, instrumentation and other equipment.
All equipment is divided into two large groups:
• auxiliary equipment.
The main functional mechanisms include distillation columns operating under pressure, atmospheric and vacuum columns, columns for the separation of gases (butane, propane, ethane). The main equipment also includes filters, sorbing plants, gas generators, evaporators and cleaning towers.
Auxiliary devices include receivers for gases and liquids (vertical and horizontal), mounting, water and dirt separators, settling tanks, mixers, mixers, air heaters.
During the extraction, transportation and processing of combustible minerals, not only special mechanisms are used, but also certain types of reagents. The efficiency of production depends on their quality. The use of surfactants, acids and polymers from the initial stages of development makes it possible to increase the productivity of oil reservoirs by more than 15%.
Chemical reagents for oil are necessary for:
• decrease in fluid viscosity;
• improving the efficiency of productive layers;
• dissolution of salts deposited in wells, paraffins, corrosion products.
Reagents for oil refining are additives that increase the octane number of gasoline, and those that reduce the pour point of diesel fuel.
Chemical solutions for drilling are:
• reducers of fluid loss of drilling connections on the basis of water;
• thickeners for working fluids;
• viscosity reducers;
• additives in drilling mixtures;
• additives in grouting solutions.
At the final stage of exploitation of oil fields, there is a sharp decline in the volume of produced products, water cut and ductility of black gold increase. In order to improve reservoir productivity, reduce the viscosity of the pumped feedstock and protect pipelines from corrosion, oil recovery chemicals are used. There are several types of these solutions.
Corrosion inhibitors for oil pipelines are capable of absorbing oxygen, as well as destroying bactericides and causative agents of destruction. Scale inhibitors prevent the accumulation of mineral salts in pipes. In addition, some reagents prevent the formation of gas hydrates during the extraction, transportation and processing of black gold.
Other chemical solutions – bactericides – help protect production systems from the growth of sulfate-reducing, hydrocarbon-oxidizing and thionic bacteria. And pour point depressants help to reduce the pour point of oil and stable gas condensate by dispersing and blocking the reproduction of paraffin molecules.
The main reagents for drilling are liquid-based fluid loss reducers. They can be modified starch, synthetic polymer, polyanionic cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose. These chemicals can also act as viscosifiers for drilling fluids.
Synthetic polymers, lignosulfonates and lignites reduce the viscosity of working solutions. And additives in these mixtures can be defoamers, lubricants, bactericides and flushing fluids. Cement mixture additives are cement slurry fluid loss reducers, dispersants, setting retarders (or retarders), defoamers, friction reducers, fillers and stabilizers.
A reagent such as bentonite clay powder is specially designed for the preparation of drilling fluids. And sodium tripolyphosphate is needed to reduce the viscosity and control the rheology of drilling fluids based on water.
Oil reagents are used at every stage of production: from drilling deepenings to transporting the extracted raw materials to the place of further processing. They are used as additives in drilling fluids to adjust their rheological characteristics. These chemical compounds increase the speed and efficiency of well development. In addition, some types of additives are intended for the overhaul of oil wells.
Chemical reagents for gas production
Modern chemical reagents for gas are widely used in global enterprises. They are designed to improve the quality and efficiency of blue fuel production.
Diethylene glycol, which is a selective solvent, occupies a special place among a significant number of chemical solutions that are used in the gas industry. It is used to break down aromatic organic substances.
Also one of the main chemical reagents is graphite. It is added to drilling fluids to prevent sticking. Typically, graphite is used during the preparation of the drill shaft for running.
Chemical additives to gas provide:
• improvement of completeness of combustion;
• detonation reduction;
• adding a specific odor to the gas, and so on.